Human, animal, food, water, and environmental microbiology are all areas of public health microbiology, with an emphasis on human health and disease. To develop, integrate, analyse, and transmit epidemic intelligence, laboratory scientists, epidemiologists, and doctors are needed. Microbiology in public health aids in the monitoring of recognised and developing hazards as well as the evaluation of effective interventions. Clinical microbiology (CM) is concerned with the aetiological diagnosis of human and animal infections, as well as predicting the fate of the infectious process in each specific patient for whom an antibiotic treatment is being considered. These duties and their completion have always followed, and have been regulated by, Koch's classic postulates, since the early stages of CM.