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Microbial Biochemistry, Enzymology and Protein Engineering

Microbial Biochemistry, Enzymology and Protein Engineering

Microbial Biochemistry is a field of medicine that studies the chemical reactions that occur in microorganisms such as bacteria, viruses, fungus, and algae. Within the microbe, it is concerned with the structures, activities, and interactions of biological macromolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. Methane-oxidizing bacteria have recently been shown to be capable of decreasing greenhouse gas emissions by consuming hydrogen gas to aid their development and survival. Microbial physiology, biochemistry, and genetics enabled the articulation of concepts that have since proven to be crucial in the study of higher species.

Enzymes are large biomolecules that are essential for all of the chemical reactions that keep life going. They speed up all of the body's metabolic processes and perform a specialized task. With the rapid advancement of enzyme technology, microbial enzymes are gaining a lot of attention. Economic feasibility, high yields, consistency, ease of product modification and optimization, continuous supply owing to absence of seasonal swings, rapid growth of microbes on affordable media, stability, and increased catalytic activity are all reasons why microbial enzymes are favoured. Microbial enzymes are important in the diagnosis, therapy, biochemical inquiry, and monitoring of a wide range of disorders. Amylase and lipase are two key enzymes that have been extensively investigated and are crucial in a variety of industrial and medicinal applications.

Protein engineering is the synthesis and production of non-natural polypeptides, often by modifying naturally occurring amino acid sequences. Structures and functions of synthetic proteins can now be generated entirely on a computer or created in the lab through directed evolution. Protein engineering has emerged as a critical method for overcoming natural enzymes' limitations as biocatalysts. Recent improvements have primarily focused on using directed evolution to increase the activity, enantioselectivity, and stability of enzymes that are particularly crucial for organic synthesis, such as monooxygenases, ketoreductases, lipases, and aldolases. In order to explore enzyme sequence space and generate enhanced or novel enzymes, a combination of directed evolution and rational protein design using computational techniques is becoming increasingly necessary.

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