Microbial identification is described as "microbial characterization using a limited set of tests that have been pre-selected and are relevant to the topic under investigation." Identification of microorganisms is a key aspect of the microbiology function. Screening products for undesirable organisms, characterizing the environmental microbiota, and examining out-of-bounds events with the goal of attributing a likely site of origin are all part of this process. An identification strategy is needed when determining what to identify, when to identify it (and to what level), and how to identify it. The goal of microbiological identification is to distinguish one microbial isolate from another so that it can be assigned to a family, species, or even a specific strain.
Infectious organisms such as bacteria, yeast, mould, fungi, virus, prions, protozoa, or their toxins and by-products can be introduced unintentionally or accidentally through microbiological contamination. The main microorganism groups that cause food contaminations include bacteria, fungus, protozoa, and viruses. Bacteria are by far the most important microbial group often connected with food-borne disorders due to their diversity and pathogenicity.