The study of microorganisms found in prehistoric materials is known as paleomicrobiology. Microbiology, anthropology, history, palaeontology, and archaeology have all contributed to this intriguing domain of research. To diagnose ancient infectious diseases and study the virulence, evolution, and lifestyles of ancient pathogens, the discipline mainly relies on the investigation of microbial aDNA. In the examination of one of the coldest cases in human history, paleomicrobiology played a key role.
Archaea are a category of microorganisms that are related to bacteria but differ in evolution. Many archaea have been discovered to live in harsh conditions, such as high pressures, salt concentrations, or temperatures. Extremophiles are organisms that live in extreme environments. The structure of their cell wall differs from that of bacteria, and it is thought to be more stable in harsh conditions, which may explain why some archaea can survive in some of the world's most hostile environments.
The detection and characterization of both biological and non-biological evidence are crucial to microbial forensic investigations. Microbial forensics aims to deliver credible results quickly in order to preserve public health while also ensuring sufficient validity and quality for law enforcement and policy making. Law enforcement may collaborate with scientists from microbiology, genetics, public health, agriculture, and a variety of other fields to identify and characterise infections or their toxins implicated in biological events in microbial forensics.