Clostridioides difficile is one of the top five urgent antibiotic resistance threats in USA. There is a worldwide increase in multidrug resistance (MDR) of C. difficile, with emergence of novel strains which are often more virulent and MDR. Antibiotic resistance in C. difficile is constantly evolving with acquisition of novel resistance mechanisms, which can be transferred between different species of bacteria and among different C. difficile strains present in the clinical setting, community, and environment. Therefore, understanding the antibiotic resistance mechanisms of C. difficile is important to guide optimal antibiotic stewardship policies and to identify novel therapeutic targets to combat C. difficile as well as other bacteria. Epidemiology of C. difficile is driven by the evolution of antibiotic resistance. Prevalence of different C. difficile strains and their characteristic resistomes show distinct global geographical patterns. Understanding epidemiologically driven and strain-specific characteristics of antibiotic resistance is important for effective epidemiological surveillance of antibiotic resistance and to curb the inter-strain and -species spread of the C. difficile resistome. C. difficile has developed resistance to antibiotics with diverse mechanisms such as drug alteration, modification of the antibiotic target site and extrusion of drugs via efflux pumps. In this talk, I will summarize the most recent advancements in the understanding of mechanisms of antibiotic resistance in C. difficile and analyze the antibiotic resistance factors present in genomes of a few representatives well known, epidemic and MDR C. difficile strains found predominantly in different regions of the world.
Audience Take Away:
- Audience will learn epidemiology of C. difficile antibiotic resistance
- Audience will learn mechanisms of C. difficile antibiotic resistance
- The threat of C. difficile antibiotic resistance