Veterinary microbiology is concerned with bacterial and viral infections of domesticated vertebrate animals that provide food, other useful products, or companionship (livestock, companion animals, fur-bearing animals, game, poultry, but not fish). Microbial diseases of wild animals in captivity or as feral fauna members will also be considered if the infections are of interest due to their interactions with people (zoonoses) and/or domestic animals. This covers research on pathogen pathogenicity mechanisms, pathogen diagnostics and identification, pathogen epidemiology, and antibiotic resistance. The interaction of pathogenic and symbiotic bacteria with their hosts, as well as the host response to infection, are all studied in veterinary microbiology. The necessity to achieve secure species identification of rare and challenging organisms affecting animals in a timely manner is one of the current significant challenges addressed by veterinary microbiologists.