Title : Lignocellulose derived functional oligosaccharides: production, properties, and health benefits
Lignocellulosic biomass (LB) is the renewable feedstock for the production of fuel/energy, feed/ food, chemicals, and materials. LB could also be the versatile source of the functional oligosaccharides, which are non-digestible food ingredients having numerous applications in food, cosmetics, pharmaceutical industries, and others. The burgeoning functional food demand is expected to be more than US$440 billion in 2022. Because of higher stability at low pH and high temperature, oligosaccharides stimulate the growth of prebiotic bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria. Xylooligosaccharides (XOS) are major constituents of oligosaccharides consisting of 2–7 xylose monomeric units linked via b-(1,4)-linkages. XOS can be obtained from various agro-residues by thermochemical pretreatment, enzymatic or chemoenzymatic methods. While thermochemical methods are fast, reproducible, enzymatic methods are substrate specific, costly, and produce minimum side products. Enzymatic methods are preferred for the production of food grade and pharmaceutically important oligosaccharides. XOS are potent prebiotics having antioxidant properties and enhance the bio-adsorption of calcium and improving bowel functions, etc. LB can cater to the increasing demand of oligosaccharides because of their foreseeable amount and the advancements in technology to recover oligosaccharides. This paper summarizes the methods for oligosaccharides production from LB, classification, and benefits of oligosaccharides on human health.